Knowing what to say, I, J: Endonyms, Exonyms, and Toponyms

In linguistics, the name used to refer to a place in a foreign language is known as an exonym. The name used to refer to a geographical feature in its native language is an endonym. When visiting a foreign place it would be helpful to know both. Here’s a brief list of toponyms (names of places), some of which I plan to use while I’m in Europe!

I

Country (exonym) Capital (exonym) Country (endonym) Capital (endonym) Official or native language(s) (alphabet/script)
Iceland Reykjavík Ísland Reykjavík Icelandic
India, Republic of New Delhi Bharôt
ভাৰত
Bharot
ভারত
India
Bhārat
ભારત
Bhārat, Hindustān
भारत, हिंदुस्तान
Bhārata
ಭಾರತ
Hindōstān
ہندوستان
Bhārat
भारत
Inḍya, Bhāratam
ഇന്ത്യ, ഭാരതം
Bhārat
भारत
Bhārat
भारत
Bharôtô
ଭାରତ
Bhārat, Hindustān
ਭਾਰਤ, ਹਿੰਦੁਸਤਾਨ
Bhāratam
भारतम्
Bhāratu, Hindustānu
ڀارت، هندستان
Indiyā, Bārata
இந்தியா, பாரத
Bhāratadēsham
భారత దేశం
Hindostān, Bhārat
ہندوستان، بھارت
Nôtun Dilli
নয়া দিল্লী
Nôea Dilli
নয়া দিল্লী
New Delhi
Navī Dilhī
નવી દિલ્હી
Naī Dillī
नई दिल्ली
Nava Dehali
ನವ ದೆಹಲಿ
Dilī
دِلى
Navī Dillī
नवी दिल्ली
Nyūḍalhi
ന്യൂഡല്ഹി
Navī Dillī
नवी दिल्लीNūadillī
ନୂଆଦିଲ୍ଲୀ
Navīñ Dillī
ਨਵੀਂ ਦਿੱਲੀ
Nava Dehalī
दिल्ली
Naīñ Dihlī
نئين دهلي
Puduḍilli
புதுடில்லி
Krothha ḍhillī
క్రొత్త ఢిల్లీ
Naī Dĕhlī, Naī Dillī
نئی دہلی، نئی دلی
Assamese
(Assamese script)
Bengali
(Bengali script)
English
Gujarati
(Gujarāti script)
Hindi
(Devanagari script)
Kannada
(Kannada script)
Kashmiri
(Perso-Arabic script)
Konkani
(Devanagari script)
Malayalam
(Malayalam script)
Marathi
(Devanagari script)
Nepali
(Devanagari script)
Oriya
(Oriya script)
Panjabi
(Gurmukhi script)
Sanskrit
Devanagari script
Sindhi
(Perso-Arabic script)
Tamil
(Tamil script)
Telugu
(Telugu script)
Urdu
(Perso-Arabic script)
Indonesia Jakarta Indonesia Jakarta Indonesian
Iran Tehran Īrān
ایران
Tehrān
تهران
Persian
(Perso-Arabic script)
Iraq Baghdad Al-‘Iraq
العراق
Baghdad
بغداد
Arabic and Kurdish
(Arabic script)
Ireland Dublin Éire
Ireland
Baile Átha Cliath
Dublin
Irish
English
Isle of Man Douglas Isle of Man
Ellan Vannin
Douglas
Doolish
English
Manx
Israel Jerusalem Yisrael
ישראל
Isrā’īl
إسرائيل
Yerushalayim
ירושלים
Ūršalīm
أورشليم
Hebrew
(Hebrew alphabet)
Arabic
(Arabic alphabet)
Italy Rome Italia Roma Italian

J

Country (exonym) Capital (exonym) Country (endonym) Capital (endonym) Official or native language(s) (alphabet/script)
Jamaica Kingston English
Japan Tokyo Nippon or Nihon
日本
Tōkyō
東京
Japanese
(Kanji/Hiragana/Katakana)
Jersey St. Helier Jersey
Jersey
Jèrri
St. Helier
Saint Hélier
Saint Hélyi
English
French
Jèrriais
Jordan Amman Al-’Urdun
الأردن
‘Ammān
عمان
Arabic
(Arabic script)

Source:wikipedia

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Hereford to Manchester

I slept in Oxford to save travel time on my last day of my BritRail pass validity. I decided I’d have lunch as far west as,my pass allowed. Because my pass wasn’t valid in Wales, this happened to be Hereford. Because the walk from my friend’s place to the station was too far, I rung up a cab. The driver and I had a wonderfully entertaining conversation about preservatives, steroids,many a comparison of American, British, and self-grown and organic fruits and foodstuffs. after the long ride to Hereford I got out at the station where I almost froze to death from the icy wind and steady rainfall. I quickly changed my mind and decided that Manchester in the north would be a better choice as being a bigger city, would have more food options, and a safe distance away to maybe have a different weather environment than unwelcoming Hereford that day. After an even longer train ride, I arrived at Manchester where it was noticeably warmer, but the rain persisted. The increase in lunch choices skyrocketed in the large metropolitan hub that awaited me. I got off a bus near Piccadilly gardens in search for food. I found , where I had a beef pot pie with French fries and salad. With the rainy-but interesting view from my table out the window, I was able to enjoy the awesome meal.

 

I seemed to have deleted the photos of this day from my camera! I will started emptying the card regularly so that I don't have to rush and delete 900 photos in a panic for more space on the road.

Journey to Oxford, Continued

Oxford was beautiful. Dominated in ancient academic tradition, it’s many schools housed lush garden behind their castle like walls. If you look through the photos, you will see one of me peering through a gate at one of the exclusive university-only buildings. I think it was the student union. There was a former prison that a has been transformed into a hotel, where they’ve even kept one of the original rooms.

It was in Oxford, with all its academic institutions that I first saw a sign that read “free wifi.”

I had a friend of mine give my a tour of the city that I would have been unable to fully explore alone. I had lunch at a wonderful burrito joint and a quick stroll through the city’s main shopping district. I would have liked to walked through some of the school tours, but I didn’t know which one to choose and decided it was best to steal glimpses through the large stone and black iron defenses shielding the schools. You should be able to spot some in the gallery below. I visited the city museum which was just teeming with interesting finds from paintings to jewelry to china displays. France and ancient Egypt where on display next to busts of cardinals, popes, and kings. I love history and art is a fine way of bring it to life, especially when I get to use the knowledge I’ve learnt in art history courses to help me guess a few displays.

My friend and I, along with two of his schoolmates had dinner at a wonderful restaurant, Head of the River, where I had a pims (a supposedly very British alcoholic drink). With diced fruits floating I the sprite and liquor blend, it made for a nice after-meal refresher. I ate a venison burger with mushrooms and chips. One thing I had forgotten and tend to usually forget is that I find blue cheese simply repulsive, so I had to scrape that off. Other than that, the meal was sheer brilliance! I was so full, I was happy to see it was raining and that we needed to ring a cabbie.

Oxford seemed like a really nice place to explore (with more time, I would have checked out the Harry Potter backdrops scattered around the city that I’d heard about. If you visit, do take some of the school tours, take photos, and share please!

 

Journey to Oxford

Oxford was beautiful. Dominated in ancient academic tradition, it’s many schools housed lush garden behind their castle like walls. If you look through the photos, you will see one of me peering through a gate at one of the exclusive university-only buildings. I think it was the student union. There was a former prison that a has been transformed into a hotel, where they’ve even kept one of the original rooms.

It was in Oxford, with all its academic institutions that I first saw a sign that read “free wifi.”

I had a friend of mine give my a tour of the city that I would have been unable to fully explore alone. I had lunch at a wonderful burrito joint and a quick stroll through the city’s main shopping district. I would have liked to walked through some of the school tours, but I didn’t know which one to choose and decided it was best to steal glimpses through the large stone and black iron defenses shielding the schools. You should be able to spot some in the gallery below. I visited the city museum which was just teeming with interesting finds from paintings to jewelry to china displays. France and ancient Egypt where on display next to busts of cardinals, popes, and kings. I love history and art is a fine way of bring it to life, especially when I get to use the knowledge I’ve learnt in art history courses to help me guess a few displays.

My friend and I, along with two of his schoolmates had dinner at a wonderful restaurant, Head of the River, where I had a pims (a supposedly very British alcoholic drink). With diced fruits floating I the sprite and liquor blend, it made for a nice after-meal refresher. I ate a venison burger with mushrooms and chips. One thing I had forgotten and tend to usually forget is that I find blue cheese simply repulsive, so I had to scrape that off. Other than that, the meal was sheer brilliance! I was so full, I was happy to see it was raining and that we needed to ring a cabbie.

Oxford seemed like a really nice place to explore (with more time, I would have checked out the Harry Potter backdrops scattered around the city that I’d heard about. If you visit, do take some of the school tours, take photos, and share please!