Photo retrieved from http://ccel.ca/2012/02/29/conversation-club-2/

Knowing what to say, N, O: Endonyms, Exonyms, and Toponyms

In linguistics, the name used to refer to a place in a foreign language is known as an exonym. The name used to refer to a geographical feature in its native language is an endonym. When visiting a foreign place it would be helpful to know both. Here’s a brief list of toponyms (names of places), some of which I plan to use while I’m in Europe!

N

Country (exonym) Capital (exonym) Country (endonym) Capital (endonym) Official or native language(s) (alphabet/script)
Namibia Windhoek Namibia Windhoek
Windhuk
Windhoek
/Ae-//Gams
Otjomuise
English
German
Afrikaans
Damara/Nama
Herero
Nauru Yaren (de facto)[5] Naoero
Nauruo
English
Nauruan
Nepal Kathmandu Nepāla
नेपाल
Kāṭhamāṇḍauṃ
काठमाण्डौं
Kāntipura
कान्तिपुर
Yen Dey
येँ देय्‌
Nepali
Devanagari
Netherlands Amsterdam Nederland
Nederlân
Amsterdam
Amsterdam
Dutch language
Frisian language
New Caledonia Nouméa Nouvelle-Calédonie Nouméa French
New Zealand[6] Wellington New Zealand
Aotearoa
Wellington
Poneke/Te Whanganui-a-Tara
English
Māori
Nicaragua Managua Spanish
Niger Niamey French
Nigeria Abuja English, Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba, Pidgin English, Ibibio
Niue Alofi Niuē
Niue
Alofi
Alofi
Niuean
English
Norfolk Island Kingston English
Northern Ireland Belfast English
Northern Mariana Islands Saipan English
Norway Oslo Norge
Noreg
Oslo
Oslo
Norwegian Bokmål
Norwegian Nynorsk

O

Country (exonym) Capital (exonym) Country (endonym) Capital (endonym) Official or native language(s) (alphabet/script)
Oman Muscat ‘Umān
عُمان
Masqaṭ
مسقط
Arabic
(Arabic script)

Source:wikipedia

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