Photo retrieved from http://ccel.ca/2012/02/29/conversation-club-2/

Knowing what to say, I, J: Endonyms, Exonyms, and Toponyms

In linguistics, the name used to refer to a place in a foreign language is known as an exonym. The name used to refer to a geographical feature in its native language is an endonym. When visiting a foreign place it would be helpful to know both. Here’s a brief list of toponyms (names of places), some of which I plan to use while I’m in Europe!

I

Country (exonym) Capital (exonym) Country (endonym) Capital (endonym) Official or native language(s) (alphabet/script)
Iceland Reykjavík Ísland Reykjavík Icelandic
India, Republic of New Delhi Bharôt
ভাৰত
Bharot
ভারত
India
Bhārat
ભારત
Bhārat, Hindustān
भारत, हिंदुस्तान
Bhārata
ಭಾರತ
Hindōstān
ہندوستان
Bhārat
भारत
Inḍya, Bhāratam
ഇന്ത്യ, ഭാരതം
Bhārat
भारत
Bhārat
भारत
Bharôtô
ଭାରତ
Bhārat, Hindustān
ਭਾਰਤ, ਹਿੰਦੁਸਤਾਨ
Bhāratam
भारतम्
Bhāratu, Hindustānu
ڀارت، هندستان
Indiyā, Bārata
இந்தியா, பாரத
Bhāratadēsham
భారత దేశం
Hindostān, Bhārat
ہندوستان، بھارت
Nôtun Dilli
নয়া দিল্লী
Nôea Dilli
নয়া দিল্লী
New Delhi
Navī Dilhī
નવી દિલ્હી
Naī Dillī
नई दिल्ली
Nava Dehali
ನವ ದೆಹಲಿ
Dilī
دِلى
Navī Dillī
नवी दिल्ली
Nyūḍalhi
ന്യൂഡല്ഹി
Navī Dillī
नवी दिल्लीNūadillī
ନୂଆଦିଲ୍ଲୀ
Navīñ Dillī
ਨਵੀਂ ਦਿੱਲੀ
Nava Dehalī
दिल्ली
Naīñ Dihlī
نئين دهلي
Puduḍilli
புதுடில்லி
Krothha ḍhillī
క్రొత్త ఢిల్లీ
Naī Dĕhlī, Naī Dillī
نئی دہلی، نئی دلی
Assamese
(Assamese script)
Bengali
(Bengali script)
English
Gujarati
(Gujarāti script)
Hindi
(Devanagari script)
Kannada
(Kannada script)
Kashmiri
(Perso-Arabic script)
Konkani
(Devanagari script)
Malayalam
(Malayalam script)
Marathi
(Devanagari script)
Nepali
(Devanagari script)
Oriya
(Oriya script)
Panjabi
(Gurmukhi script)
Sanskrit
Devanagari script
Sindhi
(Perso-Arabic script)
Tamil
(Tamil script)
Telugu
(Telugu script)
Urdu
(Perso-Arabic script)
Indonesia Jakarta Indonesia Jakarta Indonesian
Iran Tehran Īrān
ایران
Tehrān
تهران
Persian
(Perso-Arabic script)
Iraq Baghdad Al-‘Iraq
العراق
Baghdad
بغداد
Arabic and Kurdish
(Arabic script)
Ireland Dublin Éire
Ireland
Baile Átha Cliath
Dublin
Irish
English
Isle of Man Douglas Isle of Man
Ellan Vannin
Douglas
Doolish
English
Manx
Israel Jerusalem Yisrael
ישראל
Isrā’īl
إسرائيل
Yerushalayim
ירושלים
Ūršalīm
أورشليم
Hebrew
(Hebrew alphabet)
Arabic
(Arabic alphabet)
Italy Rome Italia Roma Italian

J

Country (exonym) Capital (exonym) Country (endonym) Capital (endonym) Official or native language(s) (alphabet/script)
Jamaica Kingston English
Japan Tokyo Nippon or Nihon
日本
Tōkyō
東京
Japanese
(Kanji/Hiragana/Katakana)
Jersey St. Helier Jersey
Jersey
Jèrri
St. Helier
Saint Hélier
Saint Hélyi
English
French
Jèrriais
Jordan Amman Al-’Urdun
الأردن
‘Ammān
عمان
Arabic
(Arabic script)

Source:wikipedia

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