Photo retrieved from http://ccel.ca/2012/02/29/conversation-club-2/

Knowing what to say, S: Endonyms, Exonyms, and Toponyms

In linguistics, the name used to refer to a place in a foreign language is known as an exonym. The name used to refer to a geographical feature in its native language is an endonym. When visiting a foreign place it would be helpful to know both. Here’s a brief list of toponyms (names of places), some of which I plan to use while I’m in Europe!

Country (exonym) Capital (exonym) Country (endonym) Capital (endonym) Official or native language(s) (alphabet/script)
Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint-Pierre Saint-Pierre et Miquelon Saint-Pierre French
Saint Helena Jamestown English
Saint Kitts and Nevis Basseterre English
Saint Lucia Castries English
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Kingstown English
Samoa Apia English
Samoan
San Marino San Marino Italian
São Tomé and Príncipe São Tomé São Tomé e Príncipe São Tomé Portuguese
Saudi Arabia Riyadh Al-Mamlaka Al-‘Arabiyyah as Sa‘ūdiyyah
المملكة العربية السعودية
Ar-Riyāḍ
الرياض
Arabic
(Arabic script)
Senegal Dakar Sénégal Dakar French
Serbia Belgrade Srbija
Србија
Beograd
Београд
Serbian
(Cyrillic script)
Seychelles Victoria Sesel
Seychelles
Seychelles
Victoria or Port Victoria Seychellois Creole
French
English
Sierra Leone Freetown English
Singapore Singapura
Singapore
Xīnjiāpō
新加坡
Singapur
சிங்கப்பூர்
Malay
English
Mandarin Chinese
(Simplified Chinese characters)
Tamil
(Tamil script)
Slovakia Bratislava Slovensko Bratislava Slovak
Slovenia Ljubljana Slovenija Ljubljana Slovene
Solomon Islands Honiara Solomon Aelan Honiala English & Pijin English
Somalia Mogadishu Soomaaliya
aş-Şūmāl
الصومال
Muqdisho
Maqadīshū
مقديشو
Somali
Arabic
(Arabic script)
South Africa Pretoria (administrative capital), Cape Town (legislative capital), Bloemfontein, (judicial capital) South Africa
Suid-Afrika
iNingizimu Afrika
uMzantsi Afrika
Afrika-Borwa
Afrika Borwa
Aforika Borwa
Afurika Tshipembe
Afrika Dzonga
iNingizimu Afrika
iSewula Afrika
Pretoria, Cape Town
Pretoria, Kaapstad
iPitoli
iPitoli
Pretoria
Pretoria
Pretoria
Pretoria
Pitori
iPitoli
iPitori
English
Afrikaans
Zulu
Xhosa
Pedi
Sotho
Tswana
Venda
Tsonga
Swazi
Ndebele
South Sudan Juba English
South Ossetia[1] Tskhinval Khussar Iryston
Хуссар Ирыстон
Samkhret Oseti
სამხრეთი ოსეთი
Южная Осетия
Yuzhnaya Osetiya
Chreba
Чъреба
Tskhinvali
ცხინვალი
Tskhinval
Цхинвал
Ossetic
Georgian
Russian
Spain Madrid España
Espanya
Espainia
Espanha
Madrid
Madrid
Madril
Madrid
Spanish/Galician
Catalan
Basque
Aranese
Sri Lanka colombo Sri Lankā
ශ්‍රී ලංකාව
ஸ்ரீ லங்க
colombo
ශ්‍රී ජයවර්ධනපුර කෝට්ටේ
கொழும்பு
Sinhala
Tamil
Sudan Khartoum As-Sudan
السودان
Al-Khartûm
الخرطوم
Arabic
(Arabic script)
Suriname Paramaribo Dutch
Svalbard Longyearbyen Svalbard Longyearbyen Norwegian
Swaziland Mbabane English
Sweden Stockholm Sverige Stockholm Swedish
Switzerland Bern Schweiz
Suisse
Svizzera
Svizra
Bern
Berne
Berna
Berna
German
French
Italian
Romansh
Syria Damascus Suriyah
سورية
Dimashq / Ash-Sham
الشام / دمشق
Arabic
(Arabic script)

Source:wikipedia

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