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Knowing what to say, M: Endonyms, Exonyms, and Toponyms

In linguistics, the name used to refer to a place in a foreign language is known as an exonym. The name used to refer to a geographical feature in its native language is an endonym. When visiting a foreign place it would be helpful to know both. Here’s a brief list of toponyms (names of places), some of which I plan to use while I’m in Europe!

Country (exonym) Capital (exonym) Country (endonym) Capital (endonym) Official or native language(s) (alphabet/script)
Macedonia Skopje Makedonija
Македонија
Skopje
Скопје
Macedonian
(Cyrillic script)
Madagascar Antananarivo Madagasikara
Madagascar
Antananarivo
Antananarivo/Tananarive
Malagasy
French
Malawi Lilongwe English, Chichewa
Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Malay
Maldives Malé Dhivehi Raajje
ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ
Malé
މާލެ
Dhivehi
(Thaana script)
Mali Bamako Mali
Mali
Bamako
Bamakɔ
French
Bambara
Malta Valletta Malta Valletta or Il-Belt Valletta Maltese
Marshall Islands Majuro English, Marshallese
Martinique Fort-de-France French
Mauritania Nouakchott Muritanya / Agawec
ⵎⵓⵔⵉⵜⴰⵏⵢⴰ / ⴰⴳⴰⵡⴻⵛ
mūritaniyah
موريتانيا
Nwakcuṭ
ⵏⵡⴰⴽⵛⵓⵟ
nwakšūṭ
نواكشوط
Berber language
(Tifinagh script)
Arabic
(Arabic script)
Mauritius Port Louis Maurice Port Louis English
French
Mayotte Mamoudzou Mayotte Mamoudzou French
Mexico Mexico City México Ciudad de México Spanish
Federated States of Micronesia Palikir English
Moldova Chișinău Moldova Chișinău Romanian
Monaco Monaco French
Mongolia Ulaanbaatar Mongol Uls
Монгол Улс
Ulaanbaatar
Улаанбаатар
Mongolian
(Cyrillic script)
Montenegro Podgorica Crna Gora
Црна Гора
Podgorica
Подгорица
Serbian
Montserrat Brades Estate[4] English
Morocco Rabat Amerruk / Elmeɣrib
ⴰⵎⴻⵔⵔⵓⴽ / ⴻⵍⵎⴻⵖⵔⵉⴱ
Al-maɣréb
المغرب
Errbaṭ
ⴻⵔⵔⴱⴰⵟ
Ar-ribaaṭ
الرباط
Berber language
(Tifinagh script)
Arabic
(Arabic script)
Mozambique Maputo Moçambique Maputo Portuguese

Source:wikipedia

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